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    Solar Cells on Non-silicon-based Materials in the World: Production, Market and Forecast

    Number of pages: 120 Number of tables: 14 Number of figures: 74
    Language: Russian
    Released: 12.07.2011
    Delivery method:

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    Pdf, Word, Excel, 2 hard copies (for credit organizations)

    Pdf, Word, Excel, 2 hard copies and PowerPoint presentation (for incorporation into investment projects)

     
    Price: 2 000 Euro

    This report is currently available in Russian language only. However, we can provide an English version of the report within 3 weeks after receiving a payment.

     

    This report focuses on the study of the global market of solar photovoltaic cells on non-silicon-based (cadmium telluride - CdTe, diselenide medi-indiya-CIS/CIGS, dual compound semiconductor elements of the third and fifth sub-groups of the periodic table - A3B5), commercially available at present. The report analyzes the trends of the market until 2025 and a study of primary aspects of solar energy development on non-silicon-based. The report consists of an introduction, six chapters and conclusion, contains 120 pages including 14 tables, 74 figures and 2 applications. This work is desk study. The sources of data of Federal Service of State Statistics of Russia, Federal Customs Service of Russia, scientific and technical literature, industry, regional and international press, as well as web-sites of company-producers of solar cells and raw materials for their production
    The first chapter sets out the basic principles of solar cells are given their basic types. This chapter also describes the main areas of application of solar photovoltaic cells, examined their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages.
    The second chapter describes markets for raw materials needed for production of silicon solar cells-not - indium, gallium, antimony, arsenic, germanium, etc.
    The third chapter is devoted to describing the world market of non-silicon solar cells. It presents estimates of the volume of their production, distribution by type, percentage of the total solar energy
    The fourth chapter presents the world's major producers of non-silicon solar cells, given their description, are implemented and proposed projects
    The fifth chapter is devoted to the Russian market of non-silicon solar cells
    The sixth chapter is devoted to the commodity aspects of the development of "non-silicon" thin-film solar energy worldwide. Needs identified in the raw materials for production of silicon solar cells of non-calculation of the "method of maximum ratings" growth of possible ranges of solar cells based on CdTe, CIS / CIGS, as well as A3B5/Ge in 2025 made some important conclusions about the feasibility of various scenarios for photovoltaics based on the primary constraints.
    The appendices are an address book the world's major manufacturers of silicon solar cells-not and the list of the sources of information.

     

    ABSTRACT
     
    Introduction
     
    I. Production technology, design features and characteristics of non-silicon solar cells

    1.1. Basic principles of solar panels
    1.2. The main types of solar cells. Production technology, design features and characteristics of non-silicon solar cells
    1.2.1. Solar cells layers on cadmium telluride (CdTe)
    1.2.2. Solar cells layers on copper-indium diselenide, (CIGS)
    1.2.3. GaAs-based solar cells

    1.3. Efficiency solar cells - history and forecast

     

    2. Raw materials for production of non-silicon solar cells
    2.1. Cadmium
    World reserves of the metal
    Sources
    Dynamics of production
    Producing countries
    Prices
    Consumptionf

     

    2.2. Tellurium
    World reserves of the metal
    Sources
    Dynamics of production
    Producing countries
    Prices
    Consumption
    Compounds of cadmium and tellurium
    cadmium telluride
    Zinc-cadmium telluride

     

    2.3. Selenium
    World reserves of the metal
    Sources
    Dynamics of production
    Producing countries
    Prices
    Consumption

     

    2.4. Indium
    World reserves of the metal
    Sources
    Dynamics
    Producing countries
    Prices
    Consumption

     

    2.5. Arsenic
    World reserves of the metal
    Sources
    Dynamics
    Producing countries
    Prices
    Consumption

     

    2.6. Gallium
    World reserves of the metal
    Sources
    Dynamics
    Producing countries
    Prices
    Consumption

     

    2.7. Germanium
    World reserves of the metal
    Sources
    Dynamics
    Producing countries
    Prices
    Consumption

     

    3. The world market of non-silicon solar cells - the estimated production, distribution by type, percentage of the total solar energy
    3.1. Dynamics of development of TA-silicon solar cells do not and forecast
    3.2. Reducing the cost of manufacturing silicon solar cells-not and forecast
    3.3. The main producers of non-silicon solar cells
    CdTe solar cells
    Solar cells based on CIS / CIGS
    Solar cells based A3B5/Ge with concentrators
    Manufacturers of germanium substrates

     

    4. The Russian market of non-silicon solar photovoltaic cells at the beginning of 2011
     
    5. Market prospects for non-silicon solar cells (forecast to 2025) in terms of raw materials

    5.1. Raw materials for solar cells on the layers of cadmium telluride
    5.2. Raw materials for solar cells on the layers of copper-indium diselenide (CIGS)
    5.3. Raw materials for solar cells on A3B5 with concentrators sunlight
     
    Conclusion

     

    Appendix 1. List the main sources
    Appendix 2. Contact information on main producers of non-silicon thin-film solar cells in Russia and the world

    Table 1. The main company-producers of non-silicon solar cells on thin films
    Table 2. Methods of manufacturing solar cells based on different vendors SdTe
    Table 3. Key challenges and ways to improve efficiency of solar cells
    Table 4. The main technical and economic parameters of the solar cells of various types, history and forecast to 2020
    Table 5. The main producers of cadmium and tellurium compounds
    Table 6. Dynamics of prices of high-purity CdTe powder for solar cells in the 2004-2014, USD/mm3
    Table 7. The total global potential demand for germanium until 2012. (t, based on Ge)
    Table 8. The largest manufacturers of solar cells in 2010
    Table 9. The main producers of solar cells on CdTe and their capacity to 2011, MW
    Table 10. Most large companies produce CIGS solar cells
    Table 11. Characteristics of germanium wafers produced by the Czochralski method
    Table 12. Solar Cells Market Dynamics in Russia in 2006-2010, $ Million
    Table 13. The main directions of development of solar energy in Russia
    Table 14. Summary table of elements limiting for the production of non-silicon thin-film solar cells

    Figure 1. The structure and appearance of the solar cells
    Figure 2. Schematic representation of the band structure of semiconductor
    Figure 3. The band open-loop model of p-n-junction
    Figure 4. The absorption coefficient of semiconductors used in solar energy
    Figure 5. Thin-film solar cells
    Figure 6. Production of solar cells technology in 2010 (in MW and %)
    Figure 7. The structure and appearance of the solar cells based on cadmium telluride
    Figure 8. The structure and appearance of the solar cells based on CIGS
    Figure 9. Getting the structure of the CIGS
    Figure 10. Structure, appearance, and a schematic representation of solar cells based on GaAs
    Figure 11. Dynamics of development of CPV-PV
    Figure 12. The history of the growth efficiency of different types of solar cells in the 1975-2010
    Figure 13. Record values ​​of efficiency of different types of solar cells (2011)
    Figure 14. Dynamics in 2009-2010, forecast 2015 growth efficiency of solar cells on various technologies
    Figure 15. Efficiency decreases solar cells manufactured by different technologies, as the temperature at 40 º C
    Figure 16. World production of cadmium (1983-2010), tons / year
    Figure 17. Production of cadmium in the world by countries in 2010
    Figure 18. The world's largest exporters of cadmium in 2009, t
    Figure 19. Dynamics of prices of cadmium in the 1975-2010, $ / Kg
    Figure 20. The structure of cadmium by regions in 2009-2010,%
    Figure 21. The dynamics of world prices for tellurium in the 1970-2010, $ / Kg
    Figure 22. Evolution of prices for tellurium in 2010, $ / kg
    Figure 23. The structure of tellurium (2009-2010),%
    Figure 24. Dynamics of selenium in the world in 1959-2009, t
    Figure 25. The main producers of selenium in 2010
    Figure 26. The world's largest exporter of selenium in 2009, t
    Figure 27. The dynamics of world prices for selenium 1980-2010
    Figure 28. Structure of selenium by industry (2009-2010),%
    Figure 29: Dynamics of production of indium (1996-2010), T
    Figure 30. Dynamics of production of indium in China (2001-2010) and the structure of production by province
    Figure 31. The dynamics of world prices for indium (1959-2010), $ / Kg
    Figure 32. Structure of consumption of indium by industry (2009-2010)
    Figure 33. Dynamics of arsenic (in terms of the trioxide) 2006-2010, (Kt)
    Figure 34. The production of arsenic in 2010 by country
    Figure 35. Dynamics of prices on arsenic in 2007-2010 ($ / Kg)
    Figure 36. The scheme for obtaining gallium and its application
    Figure 37. Dynamics of prices on the gallium in the 1980-2010, $ / Kg
    Figure 38. The structure of gallium consumption by sector (2009-2010)
    Figure 39. Dynamics of sales of LEDs based on GaAs, GaN (2006-2012) Million units.
    Figure 40. Forecast of consumption of gallium to 2020
    Figure 41. The main stages of the production of germanium and its application
    Figure 42. Production of primary germanium in the world in 1990-2010
    Figure 43. The structure of the production capacity of germanium (maximum) by country
    Figure 44. Manufacturers of germanium by countries in 2010
    Figure 45. The dynamics of world prices for germanium (1959-2010)
    Figure 46. Structure of consumption of Germany by industry in 2009-2010,%
    Figure 47. Scheme of the optical fiber
    Figure 48. The applicability of various materials for high-speed products
    Figure 49. Dynamics of production of mobile phones in 1997-2009, Million units.
    Figure 50. The dynamics of thin-film solar cells share growth and forecast up to 2017 MW / year
    Figure 51. Distribution imposed "solar" power in 2010, by country,%
    Figure 52. Dynamics of production of solar cells technology in 2007-2009, MW
    Figure 53. Forecast capacity of the world's largest thin-film solar cells by 2012
    Figure 54. Dynamics of production of solar cells by country 2007-2009, MW
    Figure 55. The forecast decrease the unit cost of manufacturing modules with different technologies (Si, CdTe, CIGS) until 2015
    Figure 56. The appearance of the station Frankenfelder Berg Landfill modules Nanosolar capacity of 1.1 MW
    Figure 57. Appearance and Function SIGC-module Solindra
    Figure 58. The growth of world production capacity of substrates and forecast (2008-2012), Mln pieces
    Figure 59. Forecast of production of solar batteries in Russia until 2015, MW
    Figure 60. Installing MOSGFE nanostructures solar cells in a turbulent flow VEECO 450 Turbodisk
    Figure 61. The appearance of solar «Orbcomm» (GaAs / Ge)
    Figure 62. The structure of the solar cells based on A3B5/Ge in the project "Solar flux"
    Figure 63. Flow sheet of solar cells "Solar flux"
    Figure 64. Samples of products under the "Solar flux"
    Figure 65. Evolution of solar cells and roar do2025 forecast,%
    Figure 66. Market volume of CdTe solar cells for the production, history and forecast (2005-2012)
    Figure 67. Possible extraction of tellurium (with and without taking into account the recycling of used solar cells CdTe) in 2010-2100, t
    Figure 68. Consumption of indium for solar energy up to 2012, t
    Figure 69. The dynamics of consumption growth of germanium wafers (2007-2011)
    Figure 70. Scenario development of non-silicon solar cells by type 2025
    Figure 71. Raw material scenario EPIA
    Figure 72. Realistic scenario for solar cells 2025
    Figure 73. Demand for raw materials up to 2025 in the implementation of a realistic scenario
    Figure 74. Qualitative assessment of relations of different technologies for 2025

     

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